British Foreign Policy 1815-65

I am happy that you are using this web site and hope that you found it useful. Unfortunately, the cost of making this material freely available is increasing, so if you have found the site useful and would like to contribute towards its continuation, I would greatly appreciate it. Click the button to go to Paypal and make a donation.

The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814-8 June 1815

As agreed at the first Treaty of Paris in 1814, a congress of the Great Powers of Europe met at Vienna to settle the future boundaries of the continent. Almost every state in Europe was represented. The emperors of Austria and Russia, the kings of Prussia, Denmark, Bavaria and Württemberg and many German princes including the Elector of Hesse, the Grand Duke of Baden and the dukes of Saxe-Weimar, Brunswick and Coburg, attended in person. 

The Congress

The principal negotiators were: 

Austria   Metternich 
Prussia  Hardenberg and von Humbolt 
Russia  Nesselrode and Rasoumoffski
Great Britain Castlereagh, and later, Wellington 
France  Talleyrand and Dalberg

Although interrupted by the ?a href="../c-eight/france/hundred.htm">Hundred Days? and troubled by rivalries, the Congress achieved a settlement which remained in force in much of central and eastern Europe until the First World War. This link will take you to a map of Europe in 1815.  The main provisions of the Congress were:

Great Britain retained



The German states



Low Countries

The formation of the kingdom of the Netherlands was ratified, comprising the former republic of Holland and Austrian Belgium, under the former hereditary Stadtholder as King William I. The sovereignty of the Netherlands was given to the House of Orange, and the King of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, making him a member of the German Confederation


The 19 existing cantons were increased to 22 by the addition of Geneva, Wallis, and Neuchatel. Switzerland became a confederation of independent cantons with its neutrality guaranteed by the Great Powers

Sweden and Denmark

Sweden retained Norway which had been ceded to her by Denmark at the Peace of Kiel (14 January 1814). The Norwegians were guaranteed the possession of their Liberties and rights.
Denmark was indemnified with Lauenburg

Spain and Portugal


The slave trade

In February 1815, the Congress condemned the slave trade as inconsistent with civilisation and human rights.


Meet the web creator

These materials may be freely used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with applicable statutory allowances and distribution to students.
Re-publication in any form is subject to written permission.

Last modified 12 January, 2016

The Age of George III Home Page

Ministerial Instability 1760-70

Lord North's Ministry 1770-82

American Affairs 1760-83

The period of peace 1783-92

The Age of the French Wars 1792-1815 Irish Affairs 1760-89

Peel Web Home Page

Tory Governments 1812-30

Political Organisations in the Age of Peel

Economic Affairs in the Age of Peel

Popular Movements in the Age of Peel

Irish Affairs
Primary sources index British Political Personalities British Foreign policy 1815-65 European history
index sitemap advanced
search engine by freefind